Nearly all these borders were inherited from colonial times, and were the product of negotiations and treaties between the colonial powers, decided in Europe with the aid of poor maps and with scant attention to African peoples.
In total this means that there were 77 South Africans murdered, 68 raped and assaulted, on average, every day during Causes The causes of conflicts in Africa are many and they frequently recur, including major causes of potential tensions and conflicts, which could perhaps be summarised and classified below.
Academics have for some time been proposing types of information that could be fed into databases to provide early warning of possible future conflicts.
The constant stalling of negotiations has created a climate of extreme impatience and frustration which has enhanced the prospect of violence. This mandate could engage UN peacekeepers or African Union troops, in addition to local officials and leaders.
But like war, conflict is and has been throughout history a normal way of conducting disputes between political groups within human society.
Foreign intervention and withdrawal during and after the Cold War; and Conflict arising from the militarisation of the Society: The result is a "window period" in our history in which the society is under-regulated by any legitimate source of authority. It was reported by the Minister of Law and Order that in there were 20 murders in South Africa up from 14 in the previous yearmore than 24 rapes and 79 robberies.
At origin a conflict over relatively lucrative transport routes in the deregulated transport sector, the taxi war in the Western Cape rapidly translated into a conflict of political affiliations. A tragic factor in this is that the civilian populations bear the brunt of the casualties in such conflicts, estimated at some per cent of total casualties across the world.
There have been a number of separatist movements causing attempts at secession, such as Katanga in Zaire, Biafra in Nigeria, and others in Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. Elite Conflicts Conflicts within the political leadership are among the most common form of political strife.
Second, many African refugees settle among local populations. An even more striking example has been the violence on the trains.
Finally, many conflicts are secessionist movements that occur along state borders. Thus it came about that it was Sudanese troops who played a large part in the coup, and Sudanese officers commanded key positions in the subsequent military regime.
The key feature of African resistance to oppression in the twentieth century was, however, its non-violent character. The mere presence of many ethnic groups in a country does not necessary bring about internal stability, animosity and conflicts.
Second, by remaining in exile, FLAM is able to use its ability to return as leverage against the government of Mauritania. The recent fighting is another example, demonstrating that the root cause of the problems go back to southern Sudan.
They are also not unrelated to the processes of modernization generated by apartheid and to the rapidly diminishing expectations from the negotiations currently underway. Although some armed elements voluntarily lay down their weapons to gain refugee status, others seek to return and fight, and often use refugee camps as bases to reorganize and strengthen their movements.
For example, it is clear that it is not simply these white political activist groups who are "pulling the triggers" - that is, who are directly involved in perpetrating such acts of violence.
It is argued and seems clear that both within the state security establishment, as well as within right-wing groupings and even within the government, there are those who have such an interest in undermining the process of change.
In Marchthe Mauritanian government granted FLAM members full amnesty and invited them to return to participate in the political process in Mauritania.
The salience of ethnicity as an instrument of political competition and state organization in several African countries, it is only to be expected that processes which have potential to alter power configurations will open new vistas for politicized ethnicity.
What makes the difference between stable plural societies and unstable ones is usually the response of the leadership to the fact of multinationality. From available indices, Nigeria has the potential for this type of conflict, given the high graduate unemployment, poor standard of living, marginalisation of the peasants, emasculation of labour and many other unresolved social ills.
It is linked to the very fragmented political situation there. This cooperation may generate rebel groups in refugee camps or motivate the host government to undertake cross-border raids in order to weaken a particular ethnicity. The short-hand description of township conflict as "black on black" violence, so often resorted to by the commercial media, therefore serves to disguise the underlying causes of violence rather than to elucidate them.
This is a bold step in the right direction. FLAM launched violent cross-border raids into Mauritania from Senegal untilwhen the Mauritania-Senegal conflict ended and many of the refugees returned home. Foreign Intervention The history of Africa since colonisation includes a series of self-interested foreign interventions and ruthless exploitation of African conflicts by the former Soviet Union and the United States, with their respective proxies during the cold war when both superpowers carved out spheres of influence in the continent.
However, when ethnicity becomes politicized, it can lead to political violence.
Introduction Conflict usually occurs primarily as a result of a clash of interests in the relationship between parties, groups or states, either because they pursuing opposing or incompatible goals. Between andeleven states hosted 97 percent of all refugees involved in political violence.
This causal linkage also surfaced in southeast Asia in the late s.South Africa’s racial discrimination still rears its ugly head from time to time. North Africa still grapples with Islamic Fundamentalism.
11 Responses to “Conflict and Violence in Africa: Causes, Sources and Types” (). Theories of Political Violence and Revolution in the Third World, in F. M. Deng and I. W. Zartman (eds. Since violence mainly involves men in South Africa, whether it be in youth gangs or hostels, the affirmation of manhood through violence takes on even greater significance.
Linked to the issue of powerlessness is the marginalisation that offenders experience as a result of unemployment, under-education and political voicelessness. Political violence has deep historical roots in South Africa. But if violence has figured prominently, it usually has not proved too difficult to make sense of it: the violence of conquest, the violence of frontier wars, the violence of apartheid and of the struggle against apartheid, the criminal.
Political Violence and the African Refugee Experience High profile political violence among refugees in sub-Saharan Africa has focused the attention of scholars and policymakers on the overall security of refugee camps.
In Februarythe Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation was contracted by the South African government to carry out a study on the nature of crime in South Africa. The study concluded that the country is exposed to high levels of violence as a result of different factors.
The normalisation of violence. Aug 25, · 3. Corruption in South Africa Essay South Africa - Words. South Africa is a nation of diverse cultures, origins, languages and religions. From to a system of government known as the apartheid system segregated the black, white, coloured and Asian population.Download