A discussion on the extent and justification of police force in our society

Initially, more traditional chemical mixtures, usually generically referred to as tear gas [1]were marketed in small aerosol cans for use by individual officers.

In fact, some state courts have reaffirmed this requirement by ordering departments to release information ACLU, Pre-OC data were insufficient to make a comparison, but the study concluded that these numbers represent a significant reduction based on trending analyses.

These studies frequently miss the larger issues regarding use of force. Costanzo found that providing information alone to test subjects did not increase their ability to perform, although it did increase their confidence in the accuracy of their performance.

Secondly, training of officers is non-standard throughout the law enforcement profession.

Beyer attempted to discover if gender differences were related to differences in self-confidence regarding performance, but was unable to determine if biases played a role in any deviance due to ambiguities in interpretations of test results.

While firear ms training is important because of the potential for negative outcomes, if often bears no relation to what is actually happening on the street.

Ramifications of this research for officer training in use of force incidents seem clear. Lastly, the more relevant information a trainee receives, the more confident they are likely to be in their ability to perform, but they need more than information — they need skill development training to reinforce the information they have received.

The primary effects of exposure to OC include sharp burning sensations in the eyes and on the skin, as well as coughing and profuse mucous production.

Report Addresses Public Perceptions of Police Use of Force

Differences in gender or type of trainee should have minimal effect on their ability to learn, and more stressful training will produce less anxious practitioners. To monitor the results of these initiatives, Chiefs and Sheriffs must also provide for more detailed direction and control of officers, through assignment of more officers to supervisory roles, and through the development of more extensive procedural guidelines.

But if a department has accurately collected all the pertinent data, it sounds less troubling to say that over the past three years, out of 45, traffic stops, [4] 12 people have been injured.

The first of these is the completeness of critical data, and the second is the ability to ascertain what information should not be released and to act to secure it.

Typ ically, this research as released to the public focused on issues such as the concentration of agent in a given volume of air e. Increasingly officers are participating in law enforcement driver training, often prompted by litigation arising from motor vehicle pursuits.

However, a study of aerosol use in North Carolina found that, out of 2, officers sprayed in training and 1, citizens sprayed during arrest or detention situations, only eight injuries were reported, and all were minor irritations of the skin or eyes Craig, While this increase in training is helpful in reducing the risks of pursuit, it usually does not address forcible termination techniques such as roadblocks and intentional vehicle contact.

This is an important development, as it allows for the integration of various force and control tools and techniques into more contextually accurate training methodologies. This undermines the entire reporting process, and indicates a fundamental breakdown in the labor-management relationship.

This is particularly true as regards the use of force to make an arrest. It is essentially a compilation of most early research into the issue of deadly force, coupled with analysis of police involved shootings in 13 large American cities. To not do so, according to the Court, is to be deliberately indifferent and therefore unreasonable to the potential constitutional violation.

Perhaps the seminal work in this area is Deadly Force: In order to assure the most effective and efficient use of this enhanced technology, significant advances have been made in law enforcement training methodology.

Such issues as desensitization of the tongue and esophagus, and the effects of continued capsaicin exposure on the stomach lining, are of limited relevance when considering the acute effects of a one-time exposure to a spray weapon. It is not uncommon for such police intervention to be resisted by the citizen or citizens involved.

Some departments conduct firearms training as often as monthly, with many more training quarterly and semi-annually. However, another study indicated that gender differences are more detectable in general confidence, but that confidence in actual ability is dependent on the context of the activity Lundberg, Fox and Punccohar, Other research has indicated that subjects who receive preparatory information prior to a stressful event such as a shooting or other use of force incident experience greater confidence in their ability to perform properly, and do in fact perform at a higher level Inzano, Driskell, Salas and Johnston, Following such incidents, some jurisdictions rethink their use of aerosols, and sometimes ban further use by local police Chow, The training offered to officers in the use of weapons was very limited, frequently involving only basic firearms instruction.Militarization of the Police Force: Causes and the Alternative A Senior Project be punished to the fullest extent of the law, but in fact the shooter was a law enforcement officer This means that the military cannot act as would our police force when.

EMERGING USE. OF FORCE ISSUES. Balancing Public.

and Officer Safety. police use of force, IACP and the COPS Office held a symposium to achieve consensus surrounding the core use of force issues, and to identify strategies that research, and provided exemplary programs and services to our membership across the.

Read this essay on Police Force.

Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. the Moral Justification of Force in the UK Police Consequentialism and the Use of Deadly Force Among Police Personnel in the UK Against a backdrop of a democratic society, the use of deadly force by the police in countries such as the UK.

Police Officers' Decision Making and Discretion: Forming Suspicion and Making a Stop A Report to The National Institute of Justice Geoffrey P. Alpert. Jun 29,  · Report Addresses Public Perceptions of Police Use of Force June 29, | The use of force by law enforcement officers has continuously been a controversial topic, often resulting in false perceptions by the public, particularly the concern that police use force at a relatively high level.

Police and the Use of Force Police and the Use of Force Unfortunately, given the role of the police and the incidents of violent crime in our society, the use of force is an everyday reality.

The proliferation of easy-to-use smartphone-cameras, too, has publicized numerous encounters between Reading and Discussion: Police Use of Force.

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A discussion on the extent and justification of police force in our society
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